Chronic Care Model Literature

Using the Science Citation Index "Web of Science" search tool, we identified articles published between 2000 and 2006 that cited one of five major articles about the Chronic Care Model.  A comprehensive review of literature on the CCM was last published in 2009. 
We've organized the scientific evidence supporting the CCM into four categories:
  • Randomized control trials: These studies provide rigorous evidence of the Chronic Care Model's impact on health care process and outcomes across a variety of diseases.
  • Quality improvement evaluations: The articles included here are evaluations of some of the many real-world efforts to implement the Chronic Care Model in healthcare settings. 
  • Organizational characteristics and quality improvement: These studies explore the characteristics of health care organizations that are able to successfully implement quality improvement programs and deliver high-quality patient care.  A few studies in this group explicitly examine the relationship between the elements of the Chronic Care Model and improved health processes and outcomes.
  • Cost-effectiveness studies: Currently there are no cost-effectiveness studies on the implementation of the CCM per se, but this group of articles looks at how control of certain diseases, like diabetes, can reduce health care costs.
The articles used for our review are:  
Wagner EH, Austin BT, Von Korff M. Organizing Care for Patients with Chronic Illness.  Milbank Q. 74(4)511-44.1996. [Link]

Bodenheimer T, Wagner EH, Grumbach K. Improving Primary Care for Patients with Chronic Illness. JAMA. 288(14)1775-9. 10/9/2002.-- Part Two. JAMA 288(15)1909-14. 10/16/2002. [Link to Part One] [Link to Part Two]

Wagner EH, Austin BT, Davis C, Hindmarsh M, Schaefer J, Bonomi A. Improving Chronic Illness Care: translating evidence into action.  Health Affairs. 20(6) 64-78.  Nov-Dec 2001. [Link]

Wagner EH. Chronic Disease Management: What will it take to improve care for chronic illness? Eff Clin Pract 1(1)2-4. Aug-Sept 1998. [Link]

After limiting the search to English 'articles' and 'reviews' from 2000 to 2006, 565 papers were identified.  Additional articles were identified through bibliographic searches and expert consultation.  Empirical, multi-component interventions to change medical practice based explicitly on the Chronic Care Model were selected through title, abstract, and full-article reviews.